STIs have a immense effects on sexual and reproductive health globally, and rank the top 5 diseases for which adults sort health care. Globally, girls aged 14 to 19 are almost twice as susceptible to STIs than boys of the same age.
More than 1 million people obtain a sexually transmitted infection every day. Each year, an estimated 500 million people attain one of four sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. 530 million people are living with HSV2. More than 290 million women have an HPV infection, one of the most common STIs. 6.8% of girls aged 14 to 19 years have Chlamydia today.
Estimated new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and trichomoniasis) by WHO region, 2008
STIs can have grave consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself. Infertility premature childbirth and stillbirth are common. Chancroid - also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle, average prevalence in the US, UK, Australia, France and Canada is approximately 1 case in every 2 million people. It is a risk factor for acquiring HIV, due to their shared-risk exposure; also, one infection facilitates the transmission of the other. Some STIs can increase the risk of HIV acquisition three-fold or more. Mother-to-child transmission of STIs can result in stillbirth, neonatal death, low-birth-weight and prematurity, sepsis, pneumonia, neonatal conjunctivitis, and congenital deformities. Syphilis in pregnancy leads to approximately 305 000 fetal and neonatal deaths every year and leaves 215 000 infants at increased risk of dying from prematurity, low-birth-weight or congenital disease.
HPV infection causes 530 000 cases of cervical cancer and 275 000 cervical cancer deaths each year. STIs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia are major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and infertility.
Despite over 80 years of trying to fight syphilis - over ten million people were infected last year worldwide. Between 700,000 and 1.6 million pregnancies a year are affected by syphilis.
In sub-Saharan Africa, 20% of all perinatal deaths are caused by syphilis According to global distribution 126million are in the region of America followed by western pacific and Africa. There is growing concern of this high proportionate of patients in America. Prevention strategies should be at the top from the beginning to lower the incidence along with policies for safe sex.